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Efficiently manage files and directories with Python’s shutil module.

# Python shutil Module

The `shutil` module in Python provides a higher level interface for file operations, including copying, moving, and deleting files and directories. It is a part of the standard library and is quite useful for managing files and directories in a more efficient way.

## Copying Files

You can use the `shutil.copy()` function to copy a file from one location to another. This function takes two arguments – the source file path and the destination file path. Here is an example of how to copy a file:

“`python
import shutil

shutil.copy(“source.txt”, “destination.txt”)
“`

This will copy the `source.txt` file to `destination.txt`.

## Moving Files

To move a file from one location to another, you can use the `shutil.move()` function. This function also takes two arguments – the source file path and the destination file path. Here is an example:

“`python
import shutil

shutil.move(“source.txt”, “destination.txt”)
“`

This will move the `source.txt` file to `destination.txt`.

## Copying Directories

If you want to copy an entire directory and its contents, you can use the `shutil.copytree()` function. This function takes two arguments – the source directory path and the destination directory path. Here is an example:

“`python
import shutil

shutil.copytree(“source_directory”, “destination_directory”)
“`

This will copy the `source_directory` and all its contents to `destination_directory`.

## Moving Directories

To move an entire directory and its contents, you can use the `shutil.move()` function with directories. Here is an example:

“`python
import shutil

shutil.move(“source_directory”, “destination_directory”)
“`

This will move the `source_directory` and all its contents to `destination_directory`.

## Deleting Files and Directories

You can use the `shutil.rmtree()` function to delete an entire directory and all its contents. Here is an example:

“`python
import shutil

shutil.rmtree(“directory_to_delete”)
“`

This will delete the `directory_to_delete` and all its contents.

## Handling Errors

When using the `shutil` module, it is important to handle errors that may occur during file operations. You can use `try` and `except` blocks to catch any exceptions that are raised. Here is an example:

“`python
import shutil

try:
shutil.copy(“source.txt”, “destination.txt”)
except shutil.Error as e:
print(f”Error: {e}”)
“`

This will catch any errors that occur during the file copy operation and print out the error message.

In conclusion, the `shutil` module in Python provides a convenient way to work with files and directories. It offers functions for copying, moving, and deleting files and directories, making file management tasks easier. It is a powerful tool that can be used in various scenarios where file operations are needed.