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Python numbers are the building blocks for mathematical operations in Python, including integers, floats, and complex numbers.

# Python Numbers

In Python, numbers are a fundamental data type used to represent numerical values. There are three main types of numbers in Python: integers, floating-point numbers, and complex numbers. Each type has its own set of operations and methods that can be used to perform various mathematical tasks.

## Integers

Integers are whole numbers that can be positive, negative, or zero. In Python, integers are represented using the `int` class. You can create an integer variable by assigning a whole number to a variable name.

“`python
x = 5
y = -10
z = 0
“`

## Floating-Point Numbers

Floating-point numbers, or floats, are numbers that have a decimal point or are represented in scientific notation. In Python, floating-point numbers are represented using the `float` class. You can create a float variable by assigning a number with a decimal point to a variable name.

“`python
a = 3.14
b = -2.5
c = 1.0e6 # Scientific notation for 1,000,000
“`

## Complex Numbers

Complex numbers are numbers that have both a real and imaginary part. In Python, complex numbers are represented using the `complex` class. You can create a complex variable by using the `j` suffix to denote the imaginary part.

“`python
d = 2 + 3j
e = -1 – 4j
f = 1j # Imaginary unit
“`

## Arithmetic Operations

Python supports all the basic arithmetic operations on numbers, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. You can use the `+`, `-`, `*`, and `/` operators to perform these operations.

“`python
# Addition
sum = 5 + 3 # 8

# Subtraction
difference = 10 – 2 # 8

# Multiplication
product = 4 * 6 # 24

# Division
quotient = 15 / 3 # 5.0
“`

## Additional Operations

In addition to the basic arithmetic operations, Python also supports other mathematical operations such as exponentiation, floor division, and modulus. You can use the `**`, `//`, and `%` operators to perform these operations.

“`python
# Exponentiation
power = 2 ** 3 # 8

# Floor Division
result = 17 // 4 # 4

# Modulus
remainder = 17 % 4 # 1
“`

## Type Conversion

You can convert numbers from one type to another using type conversion functions. To convert a number to an integer, you can use the `int()` function. To convert a number to a float, you can use the `float()` function. To convert a number to a complex number, you can use the `complex()` function.

“`python
# Convert to Integer
x = int(3.14) # 3

# Convert to Float
y = float(5) # 5.0

# Convert to Complex
z = complex(2) # (2+0j)
“`

## Conclusion

In Python, numbers are an essential data type that allows you to perform various mathematical operations. Whether you are working with integers, floating-point numbers, or complex numbers, Python provides a rich set of tools and functions to manipulate numerical values. By understanding how to work with numbers in Python, you can write more sophisticated programs that involve mathematical calculations and computations.