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The `os` module in Python offers essential functions for interacting with the operating system, from getting the current directory to creating directories and files.

The Python `os` module provides a wide range of functions to interact with the operating system. Here, we will discuss the usage of some of the key functions in the `os` module:

1. **`os.getcwd()` and `os.chdir(path)`**:
– `os.getcwd()` returns the current working directory.
– `os.chdir(path)` changes the current working directory to the specified `path`.

2. **`os.access(path, mode)`**:
– This function checks if the specified mode of operation is allowed on the given path.
– Modes include `F_OK` for existence, `R_OK` for read, `W_OK` for write, and `X_OK` for execute permissions.

3. **`os.listdir(path)`**:
– Returns a list of files and directories in the specified path.

4. **`os.mkdir(path[, mode])`** and **`os.makedirs(path[, mode])`**:
– `os.mkdir()` creates a new directory at the specified path.
– `os.makedirs()` creates directories recursively, raising an exception if the directory already exists or permission is denied.

5. **`os.remove(path)`** and **`os.unlink(path)`**:
– Deletes the file at the specified path.

6. **`os.rmdir(path)`** and **`os.removedirs(path)`**:
– `os.rmdir()` deletes an empty directory.
– `os.removedirs()` deletes directories recursively, starting from the leaf directory.

7. **`os.rename(src, dst)`** and **`os.renames(src, dst)`**:
– `os.rename()` renames or moves a file or directory from `src` to `dst`.
– `os.renames()` renames or moves with automatic creation of necessary directories.

8. **`os.stat(path)`**:
– Returns information about the specified path, including protection, inode, size, timestamps, etc.

9. **`os.utime(path, times)`**:
– Sets the access and modified times of a file to the specified `times`.

10. **`os.walk(top[, topdown=True[, onerror=None[, followlinks=False]]])`**:
– Traverses a directory tree, yielding the path, directories, and files in a top-down or bottom-up manner.

11. **`os.pipe()`**:
– Creates a pipe for inter-process communication, returning read and write file descriptors.

12. **`os.fdopen(fd[, mode[, bufsize]])`**:
– Creates a file object from a file descriptor.

13. **`os.popen(command[, mode[, bufsize]])`**:
– Executes a command and opens a pipe for reading or writing.

These are some of the essential functions in the `os` module. Each function serves a specific purpose in interacting with the file system and the operating system in Python. Explore the official Python documentation for more details on these functions and their parameters.